CERIAS - Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security

Skip Navigation
Purdue University
Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security

Automated Differential Testing for Energy-Efficient Control Software


Download PDF Document


Hongjun Choi

Tech report number

CERIAS TR 2018-01

Entry type



Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are integrated systems of computer-based algorithms and physical components interacting with environmental effects. In such systems, autonomous behaviors and overall performance mainly depend on a control software. Thus, it is crucial to test and analyze the control software of the CPS in various perspectives. One of the critical perspectives is energy efficiency because many cyber-physical systems (e.g. unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous cars, health-care devices) operate with limited energy sources such as batteries. In this paper, we propose CPSDiff: an energy-aware differential testing framework that generates test inputs to expose the maximal difference between two control programs in energy consumption. Our test generation technique uses meta-heuristic searching to find the input that maximizes the energy consumption difference. The difference-revealing ability of our technique outperforms the random search algorithm and hill-climbing search algorithm. Our evaluation of two popular unmanned aerial vehicle control programs provides a detailed comparison of their energy consumption under the same condition with a universal robotics simulator; CPSDiff found the input which exposes maximum battery consumption difference of around 47%.




2018 – 1 – 1

Key alpha


Publication Date


BibTex-formatted data

To refer to this entry, you may select and copy the text below and paste it into your BibTex document. Note that the text may not contain all macros that BibTex supports.